McKinsey & Company In The Circular Economics: The Transition from Theory to Practice A special issue, October 2016 states that these 3 principles of the circular economy can be divided into six business actions: Regenerate, Share, Optimise, Loop, Virtualise, and Exchange – together they make out the ReSOLVE framework.
- Regenerate. Transition to renewable energy and materials in order to cultivate, maintain and regenerate the health of ecosystems and return the acquired biological resources to our biosphere.
For example, support for the Savory Institute's comprehensive land management has affected the regeneration of more than 2.5 million hectares of commercial land worldwide.
- Share. Maximize the use of products through the mutual sharing of private or public sharing of products with a minimal emphasis on their re-use throughout their technical life. Extend the life of products with maintenance, repairs, and design for long life.
- Optimize. Improve product performance and efficiency and eliminate waste from their supply chains. Leverage big data, automation and more. None of these actions require a change in products or technologies.
- Loop. Keeping components and materials in closed loops and prioritizing those that allow it. For final materials, this means refurbishing products or components. Looping in its purest form is reusing products or parts thereof in the production of new products. But most commonly (and as a last resort) recycling materials, as Michelin, Patagonia, and Škoda do.
- Virtualize. Deliver utility virtually—books or music, online shopping, fleets of autonomous vehicles, and virtual offices.
- Exchange. Replacing old materials with new advanced and renewable materials that can be applied to new technologies such as 3-D printing and electric motors.